The CRETE Project

CRETE project primary objective is to contribute to the cultivation of the most wanted soft and hard skills the 4th Industrial Revolution will request from our graduate students and citizens. The project is called to address the paradox ‘57% of the employers cannot find employees skilled enough to perform as soon as they hired’ and this despite the high unemployment especially in South Europe. During the project, modules and training events will be developed by the partners that will give an introduction to the forthcoming qualifications the 4th Industrial Revolution will demand. Among the targeted skills the CRETE project includes within its plan to develop are the following: Robotics, Artificial Intelligence (A.I.), Machine Learning, Internet of Things (IoT), Quantum Computing, Graphene & 2D materials, 5G Communications, Data Science, Embedded Systems, Critical Thinking, Presentation & Writing Skills, Entrepreneurship Skills, Conflict Management Skills, Project Management Skills. To enhance the impact of our courses and training events (Intensive Courses (ICs)), specific teaching methods will be employed and be taught, such as Problem Based Learning (PBL), Project-Oriented Based Learning, Open Science, Blended Learning.  

More information for the project and its actions please visit CRETE project's website:https://crete2020.chania.teicrete.gr

    Available courses

    An Abstract: 

    This module is part of the set of Soft Skills modules, aiming transversal skills of participants to the CRETE project. Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally about what to do or what to believe. It includes the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking. This module will be geared towards fostering this ability for Higher Education students and staff.

    Learning Outcomes

    The participants are expected to: 

  • understand the logical connections between ideas
  • identify, construct and evaluate arguments
  • detect inconsistencies and common mistakes in reasoning
  • identify the relevance and importance of ideas
  • reflect on the justification of one's own beliefs and values


  • Online teaching has been becoming an urging need for different reasons throughout the past years, it is yet to be investigated and researched in order to classify different pedagogical approaches to e-learning, or e-pedagogy. Because of recent investigations and although methods are constant and ever changing, there are certain things that are clear and are, for now, known as “ musts” when it comes to online teaching. As it´s still a young method of education, flexibility, constant learning and adaptation to new possibilities must remain in the goals of online educators.

    This course is for students who wish to improve their competences in problem-solving, teamwork, and project management. Since these competencies are gained through experienced, students attending this module are invited to follow this module and at the same time try to apply (some of) the suggested methods and tools in their own practice. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) represents a widely recognized learning approach to engage students better in the learning process. This course will provide guidelines, literature and videos that can hopefully both inform and inspire on how to further integrate project-based PBL-oriented ideas into learning processes. 

    Learning Outcomes

    1) Gain knowledge of basic learning theories with a focus on Problem-Based Learning

    2) Gain competences on project planning and management techniques

    3) Gain competences in teamwork and the different roles it involves

    4) Gain skills in conflict resolution when working in teams


    This course is for teachers that desire to engage students more actively in a problem-oriented way in their teaching approaches in ongoing or new courses or projects at university level. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) represents a widely recognized learning approach to engage students better in the learning process. This course will provide guidelines, literature and videos that can hopefully both inform and inspire on how to further integrate project-based PBL-oriented ideas of teaching into existing curricula. In this course, you play an active role as a learner, since you need to define yourself, what you need to learn about PBL in order to begin practicing it. You will - so to say - learn PBL along the way of doing it. As a result, you should see this course as a resource bank, where you can find inspiration and support for taking new steps in how you integrate PBL into your own courses.

    Learning Outcomes

    1) Interpret how PBL principles can be applied in a course in order to support learning objectives oriented towards high order levels of learning (e.g. design, application and critical reflection).

    2) Define learning activities that allow for student-driven problem-solving in an interdisciplinary perspective.

    3) Involve and engage colleagues and external stakeholders during the design of the course in order to ensure broader contributions to professional and societal developments within the given field.

    4) Implement the PBL principles in practice by ensuring faculty and administrative support.

    5) Facilitate students’ learning processes during the running of the course with starting point in a restrained teaching position and set up appropriate assessment activities to measure the accomplishment of learning objectives.


    This course provides an overview of artificial intelligence (AI). It starts by presenting multiple examples of AI methods that can be found on our daily lives, and we may not even notice. Then, it thoroughly analyses multiple attempts of defining what AI is and is not. Afterwards, it introduces the multiple fields that have influenced AI (such as mathematics and psychology) and its sub-areas (data science or robotics, amongst others).
    After this contextual summary, the course embarks on a presentation on how to use AI for what it is best: to solve problems. This ranges from perfect information environments and search methods to cutting-edge machine learning approaches, including its three types: supervised, unsupervised and reinforcement learning.

    Learning Outcomes

      • Understand what is AI (and what it is not) and how it is transforming our lives;

      • Recognize terms such as machine learning, deep learning and neural networks;

      • Comprehend key machine learning concepts (e.g. classification, regression,

        clustering).

      • Identify the different types of machine learning — supervised, unsupervised and

        reinforcement learning;

      • Practice the implementation of simple machine learning models




        Note: If you're required to insert a password to access the audio files use the code "CRETE_2020"


    Our world is full of embedded devices.  From household appliances, handheld and other smart devices, controllers and computers in aviation and the car industry. Design and development of these embedded systems requires technological expertise and particular insight into specialist techniques, like for instance real-time processing.Usage of existing and commonly used industry protocols greatly enhances integration, applicability and compatibility with other systems.Development of embedded systems requires the design and production of custom-made Printed Circuit Boards (PCB), which will be covered in a very hands-on fashion in this module.




    Internet of Things (IoT) is a wide-spread and popular term, covering a vast domain of technology.  This term covers the fact that today a lot of devices are connected to the internet; from household appliances and industrial automation devices to cars, handheld and portable devices.

    This has created a whole new technological domain of its own, new skill sets that are required from technicians, designers and developers.  Moreover, great awareness about inherent security risks has developed, and this poses new challenges in balancing ease of use with security (and privacy!).

    This module will offer an overview of the technology involved in IoT, and it will focus on the security aspects and risks related to it.




    For the last three decades, the idea to employ quantum features of light and matter for practical information processing tasks has moved from purely academic consideration into the realm of technological implementations. While development of quantum computing devices is still far from the regime where they could demonstrate their superiority over the state-of-the-art standard computing devices, other fields including quantum secure key distribution as well as quantum enhanced ultra-precise measurements have seen a much faster progress towards practical applications. This talk aims at providing an overview of the main concepts and recent developments in the field now commonly referred to as quantum technologies.




    Abstract: This module aims to improve the skills and knowledge needed to create and deliver presentations in area of academic writing. The overall objective of the course is to provide a grasp on writing for scholar purposes in English.

    Learning Outcomes: Candidates are expected to develop their writing skills in academic English. The delivery mode will be online. Content will be made available on the Learning Management System of the CRETE project and a writing exercise (an abstract of arounf 300 words) will be delivered by each student. It will be corrected by a professional teacher of academic English.


    Abstract: Oral presentation skills are part of the soft skills set of modules which is aimed towards candidates who want to carry out academic work in English. The training approach is modular to recognise the fact that not all candidates are required to develop all the skills to the same level. Candidates are expected to handle language commonly used over the normal range of academic matters with which a university department may be required to deal

    Learning Outcomes: Candidates are expected to demonstrate that they are effective communicators and accepted as such by native speakers with whom they are likely to come into contact. The delivery mode will be online. Content will be made available on the Learning Management System of the CRETE project and a speaking exercise will be carried out with a professional tutor online


    Project Management is a managerial competence focused on directing projects, in the broad sense of: "directing contracts or orders for single deliverables from any sector or activity"; and constitutes the discipline (knowledge, skills and techniques) of organizing and managing resources in such a way that all the work required in the Project can be completed within the defined scope, time and cost. This module will be developed by Ecosistemas Virtuales y Modulares

    The Module aims to offer an overview of the fundamentals, tools and basic concepts necessary for all those who consider transforming an innovative business idea into an entrepreneurial project, or creating a new service or product in an organisation, providing the necessary knowledge of entrepreneurial management, in which learning through experimentation and decision-making in environments of maximum uncertainty prevails. This module will be developed by Ecosistemas Virtuales y Modulares.


    In the world in which we live today, business organisations are to a large extent the backbone of people's economic and social lives, especially in the Western world. A good part of its inhabitants provide services to companies, with the aim of carrying out their vital project. Likewise, the current needs of workers in Western societies require that companies manage these needs as far as possible, ensuring that the participation of people in organizations provides them with adequate professional and personal development.

    Therefore, it is essential an adequate administration and management of the human resources of the organizations and that these tasks are framed within the business strategy derived from the mission and vision of the business project.


    Blended teaching includes several approaches to facilitate education that merge together activities supported and/or performed by virtual (online) or physical (face to face) means. Distinct approaches can be categorized based on the channel used to perform the teaching activities, on the purpose or on the type of the mobilities supporting the teaching activities. These approaches develop transversal skills related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and internationalization which are of significant relevance to the global labor market. Blended mobility – a particular paradigm of blended teaching, based on curricular activities that combine physical and virtual mobility – has an intrinsic aptitude to overcome barriers to international mobility. This course intends to raise awareness to blended teaching in general, to present good practices and to discuss its potential to extend the reach of International Higher Education despite common handicaps. The course explains the tools and the strategies of using blended teaching methods along with a module or even along with a course curriculum. We will follow a thrilling path through the Blended Education field aiming to foster the take-up of blended teaching as an effective way to promote international exposure during studies.

    More and more organizations nowadays use their data in order to create competitive and targeted products and services. The skills required to support these concept has been grouped under the term “Data Science”.Data Science is the study of the generalizable extraction of knowledge from data. This course will introduce participants to this rapidly growing field and equip them with the principles concepts as well as its general mindset. The focus in the treatment of Data Science topics will be on breadth, and emphasis will be placed on applications to solving problems

    The core activity in any CAD system is the development of the 3D model which can then be used in various field of applications including 3D printing. This course focuses on CAD/CAM systems for 3D modeling and 3D printing, with emphasis on the mechanical design which is the largest application area of technology internationally. Different 3d modeling techniques, including surface modeling, solid modeling, industrial design, and reverse engineering are described. Furthermore, this course presents current 3d rapid prototyping and 3D printing technologies, such as stereolithography,  selective laser sintering and fused deposit modeling. This module is developed in the Hellenic Mediterranean University (HMU)

    The evolution of electronic and mechanical systems and the enormous computational capabilities have led to a new era in robotics. In the context of this module an overall introduction in the field of Robotics will be given. The topics covered are including i) Robotic Manipulators which are currently in the heart of the manufacturing industry (Kinematics, Dynamics and Trajectory Generation of Manipulators), ii) Mobile robots (Kinematic and dynamic models of wheeled robots, motion planning and navigation), iii) Robot Sensing, iv) Autonomous Robots and v) An introduction to Robotics Software. The aforementioned topics will also include software-based demonstrations. This module will be developed by the Hellenic Mediterranean University (HMU)



    5G (from "5th Generation") is the term to describe the next generation of cellular networks beyond 4G LTE mobile networks. 5G will be commercially available after 2020. Mobile operators and vendors participate in 3 GPP specification process. 5G performance targets high data rate, reduced latency, energy saving, cost reduction, higher system capacity, and massive device connectivity. 5G is coming to address applications like Augmented Reality (AR)/Virtual Reality (VR) media and applications, UltraHD or 360-degree streaming video and many more where the data rate of LTE or even the LTE-A are not enough.  In addition, there are latency-sensitive applications that require less delay than the LTE and other applications that require an extremely low probability of error. Also, 4G cannot cope with the exponential growth of connected devices due to IoT, such as the development of billions of wirelessly connected sensors, actuators and similar devices for mass machine connectivity. So in this introductory lesson, we will try to illuminate this wonderful and very promising new 5G technology that will change the world and the economy of the planet.


    Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms is a honeycomb lattice. Its single layer isolation in 2010 permitted its study and application thanks to wonderful mechanical, physical and optical properties demonstrate. Graphene triggers the evolution and the increasing research & industrial interest to other 2D materials (e.g. transition metal dichalcogenides - TMDs). In this module, an introduction to graphene-based materials and TMDs will be provided: from fabrication to the deposition techniques of these materials. Continuously selected applications in energy harvesting, in electronics and optoelectronics areas, will be presented. This module will be developed in collaboration between Hellenic Mediterranean University (HMU) and University of Warsaw (UW). The module consists of 12 lecture sessions 



    The term 'smart cities' refers to cities that leverage the digitalization of societies in order to monitor and connect everything from buildings to street lights, to humans' well-being, to self-driving cars. Smart Cities will allow governments to provide better city services, more accessible, more inclusive, safer, cleaner, and more environmentally friendly. The smart city's citizens are able to better utilize all the city has to offer, for example from the convenience of their smartphones

    There are three main ways technologies can be utilized to make cities smart:

    • To make smarter the cities management e.g. energy management, waste management
    • To provide new services that were not possible to provide without the technology e.g. Uber, smart bikes, or making services better using smart applications
    • Making the cities governance better e.g. make cities more responsive for citizens

    Smart technologies, 5G Communications, Big Data Analysis, 3D Printing, Virtual Reality, Robotics, Green Electronics, and other smart technologies can facilitate this transition: from a traditional to a smart city. A vision and target that many cities are working towards it, both investing in smart infrastructure, smart policies & ecosystems that allow urban innovation to flourish

    This LTTA event, training school (organized by the CRETE project)  will introduce to the public (scholars, students, local society administration, general public) to fundamental smart cities actions, good policies - examples of smart cities and also present some of the disruptive smart technologies that will define the future. We aim to familiarize the citizens with these technologies and thus contribute to the acceptance of these new technologies into their daily life. Finally, the school will provide an introduction to key soft skills that will help the citizens of smart cities to collaborate and be open to accepting the new disruptive technologies a smart city uses

    Graphene and 2D materials are the rising stars on the horizon of materials science with tremendous potential for many applications. Graphene single layer isolation (in 2004 in Manchester) resulted in the award of Nobel prize in Physics in 2010 in Novoselov and Geim. The rise of graphene research opened the investigation of other noncarbon 2D materials, such as transition metal chalcogenides (TMDs), MXenes, phosphorene, etc. Besides the enormous surface/volume ratio, critical for many applications where reactions take place on the surface (e.g. catalysis, energy storage, etc), these layered 2D materials offer a wide gamut of exciting properties such as specific bandgaps, original optical and electrical properties, etc. For instance, in electronics, capitalizing on the variety of 2D monolayers now available (and many more to discover), coupled with the established expertise in silicon technology, we will be able to design new devices and heterojunctions using a "lego-approach" of stacking monolayers of different properties and bandgaps. We can indeed apply the motto in science that the "sky is the limit" for graphene and 2D nanomaterials

    This intensive course envisions providing an introduction to graphene &2D materials and the related applications. Our speakers are distinguished scientists in the topics they will present. We hope that this course will inspire you to follow more modules on the topic and join the world effort to advance the related technology

    This Intensive Course is directly related to the module that has been developed in the CRETE Project 'Graphene and 2D materials 

    The school is organized by the CRETE Project, Dr. George Kakavelakis (University of Cambridge), the Hellenic Mediterranean University Nanomaterials for Emerging Devices Research group, and the ATHENA European University 

    All the lecture material (transparencies and Video lectures) developed during the school took place in Aalborg, Copenhagen will be uploaded here. 

    All the courses are linked to the full modules of the CRETE project. This material can be used as an introduction to these courses or sometimes as supplementary material.

    We hope you will enjoy it. The courses can be found are the following: 

    1. Introduction to Robotics (Dr. Doitsidis - HMU)
    2. Introduction to Programming for Robotics (Dr. Kounalakis - AAU)
    3. Introduction to Artificial Intelligence (Dr. Cuncha - IPP)
    4. An Introduction to PBL and POPBL (Dr. Trainatafylou - AAU)
    5. How to write and present your work (Dr. Petridis - HMU)
    6. An Introduction to Quantum Computing (Dr. Dragan - UW)
    7. An Introduction to Graphene & 2D Materials (Dr. Babinski - UW)
    8. Teaching using PBL (Dr. Triantafyllou - AAU)
    9. Principles of Scientific Principles (Dr. Zourou - W2L)
    10. Open Science - Why to care of (FOSTER Network)
    11. An Introduction to Entrepreneurship (Mr. Tavio - EVM)
    12. An Introduction to Project Management (Mr. Tavio - EVM)
    13. An Introduction to 5G Communications (Dr. Kokkinos - HMU)
    14. An Overview of IoT (Mrs Degreef - Thomas More)
    15. Demonstration of a sensor network, using node – RED and MQTT to measure, exchange and store measurement data (Mr. Verbruggen - Thomas More)
    16. Principles of Blended Teaching (Dr. Almeida, IPP)



    A series of short presentations in key 4th Industrial Revolution Technologies 

    Soft Skills for Higher Employability: The recipe for high Employability 

    What are Soft Skills? 

    Soft skills are nontechnical skills, abilities, and traits that workers need to have to get employed or to function in a specific employment environment. The soft skills can be grouped into the following categories:

    1. Personal qualities and work ethics
    2. Problem-solving and other cognitive skills
    3. Oral communication skills
    4. Interpersonal and teamwork skills

    To learn more about soft skills you are invited to follow the module the International Relations Academy of the Hellenic Mediterranean Office offers - please check: http://petridischania.hmu.gr/hmu-lessons/course/view.php?id=4

     Most wanted Soft Skills for high employability 

    We often hear employers and business leaders lament the unfortunate gap between what students learn in the University and what they are actually expected to know in order to be job-ready and thus more employable. This is particularly alarming in light of the large — and still growing — number of people graduating from university: above 40% of 25 to 34-year-olds in OECD countries, and nearly 50% of 25 to 34-year-olds in America. A McKinsey report back in 2015 reported that employers cannot fill advertised job occupations because cannot find candidates with the desired skills. 

    Having said that, universities could substantially increase the value of the University degree if they spent more time teaching their students critical soft skills. Recruiters and employers are unlikely to be impressed by candidates unless they can demonstrate a certain degree of people-skills or otherwise known soft skills. This is perhaps one of the biggest differences in how the market and Higher education assess their 'employees'. While employers want candidates with higher levels of Emotional Intelligenceresilience, empathy, and integrity, those rarely attribute that universities nurture or select for in admissions. As the impact of AI and disruptive technology grows, candidates who can perform tasks that machines cannot are becoming more valuable — and that underscores the growing importance of soft skills, which are hard for machines to emulate. Though hard skills show off your experience and understanding of a particular, measurable ability, soft skills often indicate your ability to work with others and grow within a company. Soft skills help you build relationships and solve problems in order to use your hard skills to their full extent. Listing soft skills on your resume, demonstrating them in an interview, and developing them in the workplace can support your career and open you to new opportunities.

    The Webinar's presenters come from Academia and Industry and will present from their perspective one soft skill that very important for an employee to have.

    This Webinar is related to the outcomes of the Strategic Partnership Project Critical Skills for Electronic Engineers of 2020, along which full modules for the development of soft skills have been generated. More information will be provided by the coordinator of the project Dr. Konstantino Petridi during the webinar


    An immediate, efficient and effective response to the challenges posed by the Covid19 pandemic to students, academic teachers, and universities is required.

    The crucial challenges by stakeholder groups in higher education include the following:

    Challenges for students

    • Impact on study plans
    • Change of delivery method from face to face to an online format
    • Emotional support from teachers and universities while studying under a lockdown environment
    • Collecting feedback from students on their view of the challenges

    Challenges for academic teachers

    • Integration of online technology in their teaching
    • Selection of appropriate pedagogical approach for synchronous and asynchronous online teaching
    • Emotional support for themselves along with online teaching
    • Best way to offer emotional support to students along with online teaching
    • The next day: Integration of online and blended teaching methods when we exit from lockdown

    Challenges for Institutions along with Covid19 crisis

    • Emotional support for students and academic teachers during this period
    • Impact of Covid19 to students and staff mobilities on the frame of the Erasmus Plus Program
    • Support to international students during this period
    • The next day: integration of online and blended teaching schemes

    The Hellenic International Relations Office of the Hellenic Mediterranean University from Greece and EVM, an SME from Spain, involved very actively in the Erasmus & Horizon 2020 projects and the ATHENA European University Consortium took the initiative to organize a Webinar focused mostly on the challenges of Academic Teachers along with their transition from face to face teaching to online teaching (as mentioned above).

    All the speakers participating in the Webinar have expertise in online teaching technology, online teaching pedagogy and online teaching offered emotional support.  We have contributions from Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel), Israel Institute of Technology (Israel), MEITAL (Israel), Abdullah Gul University (Turkey), University of Cusano (Italy), Universita Telematica Internationale (Italy), UMIT (Austria), University of Passau (Germany), Aalborg University (Denmark), Karlstad University (Sweden),  AP University of Applied Science & Arts (Belgium), UNED (Spain), IPP (Portugal) and University of La Laguna (Spain). In the future, this wonderful team will address the challenges and the opportunities that arise during this difficult moment.

    For further information please visit: Webinar – Challenges for Higher Education in the era of Covid19 and the next day


    Communication Companies & Providers around the World have already started their activities (technology upgrades and commercial launches) to run their 5G (the fifth generation of mobile communications) networks, through trials or even actually provide 5G services to their customers, and the introduction of new applications. Indeed 5G is something more than ...one more G (compared to 4G services), is a technology that will transform our daily life & activities and offers possibilities that are hard to imagine a citizen. It is a technology studies less our mobile phone and is more about everything related to it. 5G is a game-changer, the enabler for the digitalization of any society, that deserves our attention since will have a tremendous impact on the way we experience our daily life activities

    5G Explained

    1. Operational frequencies: 700MHz, 2GHz, 3.4 - 3.8 GHz, and 26 GHz (the 4G operates in the region 2GHz - 6GHz)

    The advantages of 5G communication systems compared to 4G are listed below:

    1. Much faster; 100 times faster data speeds (up to 20 Gb/s) than 4G Communications. An HD movie will be downloaded in less than 10s compared to 10 minutes is required now!
    2. Lower Latency; much less delay or lag when we are using our smartphones. With 4G the latency is of the order of 40-50 ms whereas the 5G communications will make this delay much shorter, less than one ms!
    3. Higher Device Connection Density; with 5G up to 1 Million devices per square km would be connected to the network compared to 1000 devices per square km the 4G technology permits
    4. Greater Capacity; more high - demand devices (see IoT) will be enabled to be connected and perform
    5. Flexibility; providing the option of network slicing: enable the providers to support multiple sessions and service flows for an end-user
    6. Improved battery life; up to 10 times compared to the 4G compatible mobile devices

    Industries that 5G expects to have an impact

    1. Energy/Utilities (e.g. Smart Grid)
    2. Health (e.g. Remote Surgery)
    3. Comms& Media 
    4. Financial Services (e.g. fast transfers)
    5. Hi-Tech (e.g. 5G Private Networks, Interface with AI for the customer support, remote employee interconnection)
    6. Shipping (e.g. Remote working, Transfer of data from/to ship, Ship control & maintenance)
    7. Travel & Tourism (e.g. Monitor health status of travelers, e-visits, Real-time traffic monitoring, offering travel information in real-time)
    8. Education (e.g. Support Online teaching& learning, Monitoring School Buses)
    9. Agriculture (e.g. Drones Inspection, Wireless communication with monitoring sensors)
    10. Retail (e.g. use virtual reality for products & services, automation of warehouse product selection process)

    5G Main Challenges

    1. Spectrum Availability and Cost will have an impact on the massive application of 5G
    2. New Operational & Investment Framework in the period from 2020 - 2035 the global investment in 5G will approach the $ 300 billion per year
    3. Infrastructure Innovation and technology breakthroughs
    4. Operational Complexity
    5. Security issue; 5G is considered critical national infrastructure, the fabric where all other Industries, economic and social activities will be based upon, ensuring the security of 5G networks is of paramount importance
    6. Health Risks (??) 

    Today 13 European Countries enjoy 5G services (Austria, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Romania, Spain, Swisscheland, Latvia, Denmark, and the UK)

    The Strategic Partnership Project CRETE (critical skills for electronic engineers for 2020), the Hellenic International Relations Office of the Hellenic Mediterranean University from Greece, the ATHENA European University consortium, and EVM, an SME from Spain, involved very actively in the Erasmus & Horizon 2020 projects took the initiative to organize a Webinar focused to provide an introduction to the public and to students of this amazing technology. It is important to open public dialogue, enhance the awareness of the public on 5G since any reform to become welcome should have the support of its stakeholders 

    All the speakers participating in the Webinar have expertise in 5G Communications & Applications and they will try to make a fast introduction to this amazing technology that the 4th Industrial Revolution has introduced ...among others

    The Webinar's presenters come from Academia and Industry and this makes us happy that the topic will be balanced presented regarding its principles but also its real-life applications